Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

For Terrorism Definition please see bottom of article or click here
History On Terrorism introduction follows below:

What Is The Terrorism Definition?

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - Terrorist Training within Gaza for a planed attacked outside the middle east - FLSS Global
Terrorist Training within Gaza for a planed attacked outside the middle east. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

For many people prior to 9/11 in Australia, the United States and in most western societies, terrorism was an image that was prominently depicted in newspapers, or on fictional television, shows such as ‘The Bill’ or ‘CSI’, and the nightly news…

It is such images that projected the conjectural and unqualified definition of what terrorism is to the public at large (Hoffman, 2006; Richardson, 2006; Horgan, 2005).

We have all seen the images on national television either in non fictional or fictional works where images dogmatically showed middle-eastern male(s) involved in a hi-jacking of a plane, tormenting his or her hostage(s) whilst defying the inevitable forth coming onslaught of a rescue attempt by police or military units of a sovereign state (Davies 2003).

What ‘every day’ common placed society defined as terrorist, is in reality separated by a world of sea and air, culture, religion and political stability, as far as democratic societies go.

In the United States, before 9/11 the images of terrorism attracted little attention (White, 2006, p.2) and the Olympic Munich massacre of the Israeli Olympians was only a distant and tragic memory.

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Birth of The Term ‘Terrorism’:

Most scholars suggest that the birth of the term ‘terrorism’ originated during the French revolution, the “Regime de la Terreur” (Simonsen, 2004, p.74; Hoffman, 2006; Sorenson, 2004). This is partly true if one is to interpret the act in which the objective was ascertained…

However there are author’s who dwell deeper on this issue, such as Louise Richardson (2006), who points out that the Siccaric, later better known as the Zealots became customarily associated with political and religious killings.

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Siccaric, Later Known As The Zealots:

Their method of public place assassination by the dagger demonstrated two major keys points. The first being that the Zealots conducted there murders in highly visible places such as festivals, using an element of surprise, and secondly that by their actions they generated fear within the community, thus attaining infamy, (Richardson, 2006).

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - The Zealots: Considered the first true initial founders of terrorism - FLSS Global
The Zealots: Considered the first true initial founders of terrorism. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Zealots objective was political as they were ruled by the Romans, it was also religious, as their public executions was a way of demonstrating their Jewish faith in God (Richardson, 2006).

What is further significant about the time of the Zealots is that they also included the killing of their own, who conspired and worked with the Romans.

Richardson (2006), confirms that the objective of terrorism is mainly to bring about political change. Although, the Zealots could not be considered terrorist, simply because they did not kill indiscriminately (Richardson, 2006), the essence of their motivations however are clearly seen in all acts of conflict, even to this day.

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The French Revolution Anarchists:

The traits of the Zealots, which were to create fear and the use of force are also apparent in the French Revolution, where the Anarchists used violence in order to bring about political change (White, 2006).  The tactics used during this period were instigated by the will of the underclass who were discontented with the distribution of land and wealth by the upper classes.

This conflict demonstrated that force was utilized by a non government group, a minority that engaged in conflict to achieve socialism. Surprisingly the anarchist believed that there were no other methods available to them that would bring about the desired political change, (White, 2006).

The noteworthy importance of this conflict is that there is evidence and acknowledgment of what could be considered state sponsored terrorism. The “Regime de la Terreur” however is best described by Hoffman, as follows;

“…. the régime de la terreur was an instrument of governance wielded by the
recently established revolutionary state. It was designed to consolidate the new
government’s powers by intimidating counter-revolutionaries, subversives, and
all other dissidents whom the new regime regarded as “enemies of the people”

–  (Hoffman, 2006, p.3)

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Irish Republican Army (IRA):

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - The House Michael Collins founder of the IRA lived in. Now a popular guest house - FLSS Global
The House Michael Collins founder of the IRA lived in. Now a popular guest house. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Irish Republican Army or IRA, is a nationalist organization that was organized by Michael Collins in 1969, split into two groups, the majority, advocating a united socialist Ireland and elected to proceed with a more acceptable form in achieving their objective…

Hence they rejected the use of terrorism.

In contrast however provisional supports used terrorism as a mechanism for unification (White 2006; Richardson, 2006).

The conflict in Ireland showed that there the community was profoundly alienated because of ethnic and religious attitudes.

Hostility increased between the Catholic minority, which perceived itself to be marginalized and methodically alienated by Protestants, and the Protestant majority, which was suspicious of Catholic inclinations toward the union with Ireland.

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - Popular IRA graffiti honoring some of the killed IRA members - FLSS Global
Popular IRA graffiti honoring some of the killed IRA members. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

Here we can see Brogan’s (1998, p.556) conclusion that terrorism is motivated by patriotic or ethnic indifference.

In the case of the IRA they abandoned paramilitary activity and were accused of involvement in organized criminal activities, such as bank robbery, extortion, smuggling, and counterfeiting (Moloney, 2002).

Which Horgan (2005) suggests is a common element in contemporary terrorism.

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Tamil Tiger’s:

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - The Tamil Tiger, noted as a terrorist group, however train as a military. They have their own army, air force, navy, intelligence services & police force - FLSS Global
The Tamil Tiger, noted as a terrorist group, however train as a military. They have their own army, air force, navy, intelligence services & police force. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Tamil Tiger’s in Sri Lanka have been noted for their extreme methods by the use of cyanide tablets in case that they might get captured, and their use of women in suicide bombing attacks…

In addition their tactics also included the use of children as combatants. (Richardson,  2006).

It appears that one of the re-occurring elements which involve conflict and terrorism is that it can originate from ethnic and religious diversity…

For example, the Catholic, Protestant divergence in Ireland; the Israeli, Palestinian conflict in the Middle East; and the Tamil Singhalese struggle in Sri Lanka to mention just a few.

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

Understanding The Motivation of Terrorism:

In order to comprehend the current motivation of terrorism it becomes primarily important to understand the underlying cause that is seen as the grievance of any minor force which may be trying to gain political change or religious change.

From White (2006), in addition to others, we learn that there are significant and obvious differences difference terrorist group. Especially in their objective and the methods they execute and strategize and utilize, or prefer to execute.

There are many descriptions that adequately show that in most cases that terrorist’s movements are potentially more influential than ever before. This is because ethnic and cultural movements, as well as political and religious movements have attained technological advancements that allow for immediate global communication and armaments which allows minority groups to inflict large damage or casualties with weapons of mass destruction.(Pape, 2005).

The phenomenon of terrorism is based on the targets and practices rather than the motives (Soimonsen & Spindlove, 2004) and applied to groups or individuals that engage in violent action (Horgan, 2005) who often conducted their offences against civilians or non-combatants, in ways which are inconsistent with conventional warfare (Richardson, 2006).

However the motivating factor usually has been cemented in history as elevated in the history of the IRA and British conflict.

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Baader Meinhof Gang:

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - Mug shots of terrorists of the first generation of Andreas Baader, Ulrike Meinhof, Gudrun Enslin, Brigitte Mohnhaupt, Jan-Carl Raspe - FLSS Global
Mug shots of terrorists of the first generation of Andreas Baader, Ulrike Meinhof, Gudrun Enslin, Brigitte Mohnhaupt, Jan-Carl Raspe. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

When we view the escapades of the Baader Meinhof gang who were widely known to commit bank robberies and kidnappings to gain attention for their cause…

We see the disguising difference was that their cause was not generated from an internal struggle or grievance, other than their belief in creating a socialist state (Richardson, 2006).

What can be understood more obviously however, from their methods, is that they collaborated with other terrorist organizations, by attending their training camps in the middle east, (Richardson, 2006).

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

Terrorists Educate Themselves By Learning From Each Other:

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - Hezbollarh terrorist in training - FLSS Global
Hezbollarh terrorist in training. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

Terrorist organizations that collaborated with other terrorist organizations is a common factor that existed in other campaigns of conflict, including the IRA.

The fact that terrorist educate themselves is not a new phenomenon…

For example, Al Qaeda studied the bombing techniques of Hezbollarh, where in turn Hezbollarh attained their knowledge from studying a Palestinian group…

Who in turn the Palestinian terrorist acquired the techniques from studying campaigns instigated by the Jewish terrorist groups, who in turn learned from the IRA methods (White, 2006).

The importance in understanding the history of terrorism, is the acknowledgement that terrorist themselves study other terrorist activities and methods (White 2006; Davies 2003).

This becomes apparent when we examine the Aum Sect of Japan who recruited young intellectual people in order to develop weapons of mass destruction (Davies 2003).

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Aum Sect of Japan:

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - Skoko Asahara (aka) Chizou Matsumoto leader of the Aum Sect after his arrest - FLSS Gloabl
Skoko Asahara (aka) Chizou Matsumoto leader of the Aum Sect after his arrest. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

The Aum Sect of Japan which was led by Chizou Matsumoto, who’s real name was Shoko Asahara was ultimately responsible for the death of twelve people who were killed by the sect in a nerve gas attack in Tokyo, March 1995 (Cothers: Australian Federal Police).

Hence, understanding the history of how various terrorist groups have come across their methods and the significant motivating factors that legitimizes their cause, (in their eyes), provides information that can produce effective counter-measures.

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

9/11, WTC, Al-Qaeda & Osama bin Laden:

Terrorism Definition - History on Terrorism - Attacks on the World Trade Centre & Osama bin Laden - FLSS Gloabl
Attacks on the World Trade Centre & Osama bin Laden. Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

In Conclusion, the best publicly known terrorist attack in contemporary time has to be without a doubt the attacks on the World Trade Centre, by Al-Qaeda, which has ultimately directly and indirectly changed the world for ever.

Although Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda’s history of terrorism attacks precedes 9/11 it is these attacks that forced a coalition of military strike against Afghanistan. The US led coalition directed an open war against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban, the war against terror.

The subsequent reports and investigations that took place after 9/11 in reference to terrorism depicted that terrorist were not common placed criminals who terrorized the public for some self satisfying reason.

It was learned more commonly that terrorist had themselves learnt how to manipulate common placed security procedures such as screening at airports which were installed in effort to prevent armed hijackings like the ones the world experience during the 70’s and 80’s or the circumnavigating explosive detection devices, by utilizing common every day house hold items such as box cutter in order to take control and hijack a plane.

9/11 demonstrated how educated intellectuals would be prepared to die for a cause, at that any act of violence against anyone in order to fulfill their object was a justification in their religious cause. The terrorist demonstrated that they belonged to a comprehensive network which stretched into many domiciles, such as for example;  Germany, and those networks had the financial resources to undertake legitimate training, such as flight training, and turn such knowledge into a tool for mass murder.

Terrorism Definition – History on Terrorism

History of The ‘Terrorist Player’ To Avoid Potential Terrorist Attacks:

History has shown that terrorist are strategic thinkers who will manipulate any situation to their advantage in order to achieve their objective, and that includes the manipulation of their own, and that they learn from past terrorist attacks, methods of operandi.

It is for this reason why it is important that we learn more about the history of the ‘terrorist player’ not just in order to establish new political, policing or other counter measures, but also in order to examine, if by any chance, a future minority group, who have a claim against another nation or government and evaluate whether that claim has any substance, and how a possible terrorist attack by that contending group could be assessed and/or avoided.

Mr. Christian P. W. Faust served in the Royal Australian Army (1976/79) and also as a Special Operative for the Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO) (1989/94 periodically), in Middle Eastern, and Asian affairs.

Terrorism Definition: the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. In the international community, however, terrorism has no universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition. Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for a religious, political or ideological goal, and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians).

Terrorism Definition reference – Wikipedia.org

9/11 Ten Years On

On Friday February 26th 1993, 12.17pm, just after noon, the lunch time crowd from the World Trade Centre (WTC) in New York were routinely buzzing around, exiting and entering the WTC building, when suddenly a terrorist bomb planted ironically near the secret services car park exploded (BBC.CO.UK, 1993).

 This paper will demonstrate a comprehensive and detailed depiction of the 1993 World Trade Centre (WTC) attack, exploring the background, motivation, and objective of the actual attack, and the group acclaiming responsibility and justification for it. Concluding an analysis on whether or not the responsible group could be seen as freedom fighters.

 In addition a summary analysis of the 1993 attack will depict, the significance and relationship the fundamental key players of the 1993 group had in relation to the 9/11 attack.

THE ATTACK

Eyewitness Bruce Pomper was aged 34 in 1993, and working as a stock broker in the WTC, he summed up the bomb attack with these chilling words;

 “It felt like an airplane hit the building (BBC.CO.UK, 1993)”.

 The most significant damage of the 1993 WTC bombing was the trauma and suffrage it inflicted upon the family of the victims, who were later identified as, John DiGiovanni, a 45 year old Dental Equipment Salesman from Valley Stream, New York; Robert Kirkpatrick a 61 one year old, Maintenance Supervisor from Suffern, New York; Steve Knapp, a 48 year old Port Authority Mechanical Supervisor from Manhattan, New York; Monica Rodriguez Smith, a 34 year old Port Authority Office Assistant, from Seaford, New York; William Macko a 57 year old Port Authority Mechanical Supervisor from Baonne, New Jersey; and Wilfredo Mercado a 37 year old Purchasing Agent from Brooklyn, New York (Bookrags.com, Retrieved 29 May 07). A further 1,000 persons were injured from the attack (9/11 Commission Report, p.72).

 It would later be established that a yellow Ryder truck/van rental had been converted into a mobile truck bomb and placed near the Secret Service car park on level B2 in World Trade Centre, in New York City (9/11 Commission Report, p.71).

 The explosion, created a massive 30 meter diameter hole through the concrete and steel building structure that penetrated through seven stories (9/11 Commission Report, p.71).

The truck bomb generated a pressure vacuum of over one GPa, with an estimated detonation velocity of about 15,000 feet per second or 4.5 km per second (Bookrags.com, Retrieved 29 May 2007). The complex 1310 lb or 600 kg bomb was made of Urea, Nitroglycerin, Sulfuric Acid, Aluminum azide, Magnesium azide and Hydrogen (Bookrags.com, Retrieved, 29 May 2007). The plotters added sodium cyanide to fatal cocktail in the hope that the vapors would seep through the ventilation shaft and elevators for maximum body count effect (Bookrags.com, Retrieved, 29 May 2007). The utility vehicle used by the attackers had four 6 meter long fuses, which were totally covered in surgical tape (Bookrags.com, Retrieved, 29 May 2007). A cigarette lighter was used to light the fuse which would in turn trigger the bomb within twelve minutes (Bookrags.com, Retrieved, 29 May 2007).

 In an official interview Ramzi Yousef who was found to be the key player behind the attack boasted that he actually had anticipated and hoped that the explosion would kill at least 250,000 people (9/11 Commission Report, p.72). Surprisingly, the cost of the bomb, which did not include the rental for the utility truck, was a mere three hundred US Dollars (Bookrags.com, Retrieved, 29 May 2007).

 Remarkably the FBI was able to trace the utility truck to a rental company in New Jersey, by firstly identifying the originating vehicle which housed the bomb. Then, secondly by having identified a specific component of the truck, which listed a confidential manufacturers ID number, (National Geographic, 1 June 2007). FBI agents subsequently then followed the trail to the New Jersey Truck Rental company which in turn revealed that a Mohammed Salameh had rented the truck and later reported it stolen in order to reclaim the deposit on the rental, which was said to be around $400.00USD (9/11 Commission Report, p.72).

 Subsequently Salameh was arrested by law enforcement offices on the 4th March 1993 (9/11 Commission Report, p.72). From Salameh, the FBI were able to trace the explosion back to Ahmad Ajaj, Nidal Ayyard, Mamoud Abouhalima, Ramzi Yousef, Abdul Rahmin Yasin, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, (9/11 Commission Report, p.72; Bookrags.com, Retrieved, 29 May 2007), establishing that the mastermind behind the attack was Ramzi Yousef.

THE PERPETRATORS

Ramzi Yousef, is believed to have been born in Kuwait, however officially he is deemed to have originated from Baluchistan province of Pakistan, as did his father and uncle Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who was also implicated in the 1993 WTC attack (Wikipedia, Retrieved 29th May 2007). Yousef was educated in Wales and Kuwait graduating in 1989 with a degree in engineering from the Swansea Institute of Higher Education, Swansea, formally the West Glamorgan Institute (Wikipedia, Retrieved 29th May 2007).

Yousef did well in mathematics and science and was able to secure employment with the National Computer Centre for the Ministry of Planning in Kuwait as a communications engineer (Wikipedia, Retrieved 29th May 2007).

It was in Wales where it is said that he joined the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood (Wikipedia, Retrieved 29th May 2007). In the late 1980’s Yousef had begun regular travel to Pakistan. Although Yousef had been identified as the key player in the 1993 WTC bombing he was not arrested until 1995 (Wikipedia, Retrieved 29th May 2007). His arrest was a result of the Philippines authorities investigating the Philippines Airlines flight 434 bomb explosion (9/11 Commission Report, p.147).

In this later terrorist attack Yousef posed an Italian by the name of Armaldo Forlani (Wikipedia, Retrieved 29th May 2007). Taking a flight from Manila to Cebu he placed an explosive device under his designated seat, 26K (Wikipedia, Retrieved 29th May 2007).

In Cebu he disembarked the flight which was continuing on Tokyo Japan. Additional passengers boarded the flight, one of them a 24 year old businessman by the name of Haruki Ikegami, who ended up seated in 26K (Wikipedia, Retrieved 29th May 2007). Eventually after take off the bomb exploded, killing Ikegami.

The explosion damaged the aircraft’s steering, nevertheless the captain of the flight was able to make an emergency landing at Okinawa, Japan, saving some 270 passengers and twenty odd crew members (9/11 Commission Report, p.147).

The flight to Cebu, was more notoriously known and associated to the “Bojinka” plan, which was orchestrated by Yousef and his uncle Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM) (9/11 Commission Report, p.147). Yousef had been living in Manila, and planned around 11 airline explosions, the assassination of the Pope and President Bill Clinton (9/11 Commission Report, p.147), on their visits to the Philippines. One of Yousef’s attacks included crashing a passenger or airline freighter into the CIA headquarters (9/11 Commission Report, p.345). Yousef was subsequently apprehended by authorities in Islamabad, Pakistan on the 27th February 1995, after an associated turned him in, (9/11 Commission Report, p.148).

 Authorities at one stage investigated the possibility that Yousef was loosely associated as an Iraq intelligence operative and that there might have been a possible link between 1993 WTC attack and Iraq (9/11 Commission Report, p.336), which would have meant fore knowledge of the attack by Sadam Hussein.

 Initial investigations traced Yousef to Abdul Rahmin Yasin, who was one of the original 7 men suspected and linked to the 1993 WTC attack, and his subsequent purported association to Iraqi intelligence. More on Yasin will be discussed later in this essay.

Mohammed A. Salameh, born in Amman to Jordanian and Palestinian parents on the 1st September 1967 or 68, was a University ‘drop out’ allegedly after being unable to complete engineering and legal studies in Jordan (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007). Salameh had entered the United States around 1988 on a tourist visa and subsequently became an illegal alien after he stayed in the US when his visa expired. He resided in an area known as Egyptian City New Jersey with 6 other Muslims (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007). In March 1994 Salameh was convicted in a US court for his involvement of the 1993 WTC attack (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007). He was sentenced to a total of 240 years imprisonment after evidence presented in court identified him as the individual who rented the Ryder van used in the attack (9/11 Commission Report, p.72). Additional scientific evidence identified chemical nitrates along with his finger prints on the van’s rental agreement (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007).

Salameh’s ironic apprehension came as a result after he made several attempts to claim a refund on the deposit paid for the van after he had claimed it had been stolen, the FBI lured him into a sting operation which was based on the pretext that the rental company was going to actually refund his deposit, as such Salameh turned up to collect the refund and hence it lead to his arrest (9/11 Commission Report, p.72).

Ahmed Mohammad Ajaj, also known as Ibraham Salameh, Mohamed Azan and Khurram Khan born in the West Bank, and subsequently immigrated to the United States, where he settled in Houston Texas (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007). Received training in the Khaldan camp in weapons and explosives during May 1992 (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007). By June 1992 he was known to be involved in bomb building courses in Pakistan (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007). Although Ajaj had been incarcerated in a US prison until three days after the 1993 WTC attack, the FBI in the pursuing investigations he was linked back to the original conspiracy and planning of the attack (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007).

Ajaj’s involvement came apparent when the FBI investigation attained critical evidence which revealed that he had been engaged in telephone conversations with Yousef, whilst in prison (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007).

The telephone calls had cleverly been diverted through the ‘Big 5 Hamburgers’ in Dallas (LA Times 14 November 2001), and Ajaj’s lawyer which allowed the two to communicate directly (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007).

In one of the telephone conversation which were obviously recorded by US authorities and later translated after the 1993 attack it was revealed that Yousef had sought permission to take claim of Ajaj’s belonging, which had been the result of a court order, compelling the authorities to return such property to Ajaj (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007).

The translated transcripts of the recordings it was revealed that initially Ajaja agreed to Yousef’s request (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007).

However, Ajaja must have considered the implications of Yousef’s request in more detail. Ajaj changed his mind and suggested to Yousef that in doing so, he, (Yousef), might compromise the operation (9/11 Commission Report).

FBI investigations would later establish that Ajaj and Yousef traveled first class from Peshawar to Kennedy Airport, via Karachi (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007). They were both subsequently detained upon arrival in New York, on the 1st September 1992, at which time Immigration officers noted a number of discrepancies on their passports (9/11 Commission Report). A search of their luggage revealed five additional forged, altered and or illegally purchased passports of Saudi, Iraqi, Swedish, British and Jordanian origins (9/11 Commission Report). Additional intelligence was found in their possession which consisted of identification cards, bank, educational and medical records (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007).

Ajaj, during a second immigration interview had claimed that his name was Khurram Khan and that he was a member of the Swedish press core. In his luggage immigration officers found the Jordanian and Saudi passports and a plane ticket in the name of Mohammed Azan, bomb making manuals, videos, and further written material which depicted instructions on how to assemble weapons and explosives, documents which confirmed his attendance at terrorist training camps anti-American and Israeli literature, two rubber stamps which were designed to alter the seals on the passports, and documents on how to forge official documents (Wikipedia, Retrieved 30th May 2007).

Authorities would later conclude and suggest that Yousef had masterminded a plan in which Yasin would be used as a decoy with the US immigration officials, thus allowing Yousef free passage into the US territory (9/11 Commission Report).

It would later be revealed in the 9/11 Commission’s report, that after the scrutiny Ajaj and Yousef received upon their arrival, Yousef was released because he had explained away the passport forgeries by making a claim for political asylum (9/11 Commission Report). On the other hand Ajaj would remain in custody until 3 days after the 1993 WTC attack (9/11 Commission Report)..

Nidal Ayyard, was allegedly born in Kuwait to Palestinian parents in 1968, later immigrating to the United States and subsequently acquired a degree from Rutgers University in Chemical and biochemical engineering (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007). Around March 1991 he attained US citizenship and in 1992 was in Amman Jordan getting married (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007). He had been employed by Allied Signal a company situated in New Jersey which manufactured aerospace and automotive products. Ayyard was convicted for his involvement in the 1993 bombing in March 1994, receiving a 240 year sentence (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007).

Ayyad’s involvement was traced back to a joint bank account he held with Mohammed Salameh (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007). The bank account had received on at least one occasion s wire transfer of 8,000 US Dollars from a source in Europe.

Investigating officials established that Ayyad had accompanied Salameh on the 23rd February 1993 when Salameh rented the vehicle which had been used in the attack (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007). Officials also later established that Salameh had telephoned Ayyard a total of four times the day before the WTC attack from the storage warehouse where the truck bomb chemicals had been constructed into their fatal compounded element (MIPT, Retrieved 31 May 2007).

Mamoud Abouhalima, resided with an Egyptian by the name of El Sayyid Nosair who had been responsible for shooting and killing of Rabbi Meir Kahane of the Jewish Defense League at the Marriott Hotel on the November 5th 1990 (Ragavan, 2003, Retrieved 29 May 2007).

Salameh and Abouhalima had come to the attention of the New York Police Department and the FBI after they had been found in Nosair apartment when a joint task force had raided the apartment almost immediately after the shooting of Kahane (Ragavan, 2003, Retrieved 29 May 2007)..

During the 1993 WTC attack investigation authorities further linked Salameh and Abouhalima when it was found that Salameh had used Abouhalima’s mail drop address, known as el-Gabrowny’s in Brooklyn on the rental agreement (Ragavan, 2003, Retrieved 29 May 2007).

Abdul Rahman Yasin, also known as Abdel Rahman Yasin, Abdul Rahman Said Yasin, Aboud Yasin, Abdul Rahman S. Taha, and Abdul Rahman S. Taher. Yasin was born in Bloomington, Indiana; USA shortly after is father had commenced his PhD studies (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007). When Yasin’s father completed his PhD the family returned to Iraq.

On the 21st June 1992 Yasin applied for a passport providing his US birth certificate as proof of citizenship (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007).

Yasin had been picked up in a combined police and FBI raid at his mother’s residence in New Jersey (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007).

According to the Wikipedia profile on Yasin, he had been voluntarily involved in aiding the FBI with information on how and where the 1993 WTC truck bomb was manufactured and transported (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007).

Even though Yasin was initially indicted as one of the seven men involved in the 1993 WTC bombing, unconfirmed reports suggest that the US attorney in charge of the WTC prosecution sanctioned his release from custody (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007).

After his release from custody as early as March 5, 1993, Yasin apparently returned to Iraq, where he apparently was seen and identified by an ABC news report who had claimed that a neighbor said that Yasin worked for the Iraqi government (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007).

Extreme controversy surrounded Yasin, in as much that he was released from custody and allowed to travel to Iraq, where he was reportedly to have resided freely for sometime, later ending up in an Iraqi prison (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007). The controversy continues when attempts by Iraqi officials were made to extradite him back to the US (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007). In any event he remained at large and unaccountable to this date for his alleged involvement in the 1993 WTC bombing, supposedly still in Iraq (Wikipedia, Retrieved 28th May 2007).

 Kahlid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM) believed to have as many as twenty-seven aliases (Wikipedia, Retrieved 24th May 2007). Conflicting information is recorded for his date of birth, which is either the 1st March 1964 or the 14th April 1965 (Wikipedia, Retrieved 24th May 2007). Whilst in custody at Guantanamo Bay in March 2007 KSM is alleged to have confessed to a large number of terrorist attacks expanding over a twenty year period (Combatant Status Review Tribunal, transcripts).

 The attacks KSM is said to have confessed to, included the 1993 and 9/11 WTC attacks, and the Bali night club bombings, amongst others (Combatant Status Review Tribunal, transcripts).

 KSM is said to have been initially inspired by his nephew, Ramzi Yousef and his (Yousef’s) concepts and plans for future attacks, especially the idea that involved the use of airliners (9/11 Commission Report, p.73).

 Gradually the two appeared to bond closer in their notorious activities, evidence of this can be ascertained from KSM involvement in the 1993 WTC bombing and various communications the two had with each other during the planning stage of the attack (9/11 Commission Report, p.73). Additional evidence attained from the wire transfers KSM made to Yousef support the bonding and mutual aspirations, in addition to the time they spent together in Manila during 1994 (9/11 Commission Report, p.73).

The significance of this connection would change the world for ever, as KSM would later become the man the FBI identified as having played a part in the 9/11 attack (9/11 Commission Report, p.73), and eventually allegedly confessing to the attack (Combatant Status Review Tribunal, transcripts).

 Motivation

It is difficult to determine the exact course of motivation for Ramzi Yousef’s. Parachini & Tucker (2001) suggest that Yousef had an extreme “inchoate mixture of visceral hatred and personal affirmation, wrapped in a variety of geopolitical rationales” (unknown page number). The attack was designed to create a maximum civilian casualty count (USA v. Yousef et al, page 4721), and further for the attack to create maximum psychological disruption (Martin, 2003, p. 244). Thus creating a scene of total chaotic confusion, in which it was clearly anticipated that the mass media would en-capture, the predicted horror and chaos. Evidence is clearly visible of this, in Yousef’s own direct contact to various newspapers. Parachini & Tucker (unknown page number) add that Yousef had an extreme hated for the US support for Israel’s dominance in the Middle East. Yousef himself had conceded that his motivation was not a religious one, but rather an “anti occupation crusade against the USA and Israel (Parachini & Tucker, unknown page number)” Parachini & Tucker (unknown page number).

 It is clear that Yousef and his associates can be labeled as terrorist if only for their willingness to kill discriminately (Richardson, 2006). However it must be acknowledged that due to the lack of religious inspiration for all of Yousef’s attacks, he must be seen as an individual who is a materialistic inspired terrorist with an extreme hatred for the US and Israel.

 This is in direct difference to Abouhalima, Ajaj Ayyad and KSM who expressed religious support to the 1993 WTC attack during their trail (United States v Salameh et al). The prosecutions exhibit number 196, which was the original letter claiming responsibility for the 1993 WTC attack, showed that some of the fundamental motivations for the perpetrators had been in response to the US political, economical and military support to Israel and an expression of grievances towards other so-called dictators within the middle east region (Parachini & Tucker, unknown page number).

 Conclusion

The 9/11 report revealed that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and the others were not thought to be directly associated as members of and organization such as Al Qaeda. As far as Yousef was concerned evidence depicted him more of a freelance mercenary type that appeared to roam the globe offering his services for hire to extreme fundamentalists, (9/11 Commission Report, p.59). When President George W, Bush received his daily presidential brief on the 6th August 2001 (9/11 Commission Report, p.261),

 Yousef was depicted by Osama Bin Laden as a man who deserved immense praise for his actions (9/11 Commission Report, p.261). Furthermore Bin Laden in a television interview during 1997 and 1998 stated that Al Qaeda followers should follow the example set by Ramzi Yousef (9/11 Commission Report, p.261).

 It would be not until after 9/11 in which the motivation of the 1993 WTC attack would become more apparent. The similarities of Yousef’s 1993 target and object had become an interest to bin Laden and the Al Qaeda clan simply because of the common cause against the US and Israel.

Evidence in the 9/11 report also indicated that it was Yousef’s uncle who later joined targeted activities by Bin Laden after having had several meetings with Osama bin Laden during 1999 and other Al Qaeda associates (9/11 Commission Report, p.59). It is obvious that Yousef’s prior planes to utilize planes in an attack could have been conceptualized further as the basis for the 9/11 attack, from such meetings.

The ultimate question must be asked and that is, had the immigration authorities initially detailed Yousef and followed through in an investigation, could the 1993 WTC and 9/11 been averted?

 The sequence of events surrounding the allowance of Yousef to entering the US and the detention of Ajaj seem to be slightly tainted. Authorities had confirmed that the two were traveling together and that both men had in their possession not just forged identities but written material that can easily be assessed as material of interest. As such the authority’s suspicion either would have or should have been further alerted. However this was not the case, thus it can imply a number of scenarios, one that the authorities made a grave error in judgment; two that they lacked the professional assessment ability to conclude the nature of the legal immigration breaches the two had already obviously committed; three that the two had already come under the authorities radars so to say, and thus one was let go in order for the intelligence services such as the CIA or the FBI to follow through and establish further leads and intelligence.

In regards to the group’s activities to the 1993 WTC attack, this essay has shown that the perpetrators managed to conceal themselves easily within the Middle Eastern communities in the US. This essay has also shown that over time terrorist learn from previous attacks and go on to master their individual so-called par military talents for further attacks, and furthermore, that they are willing to attack a particular target more than once, if such a target has significant ideological meaning.

In the 1993 and 9/11 attacks the WTC was seen as Americas centre to economical dominance over them. This essay has also proven that not all terrorist are motivated by political or religious inspirations, as was the case with Yousef, and in that terrorist cells operate often independently to organizations such as Al Qaeda, but that an informal alliance exists in what they consider their over-all objective. Meaning that groups such as Al Qaeda lend support, to such groups, and subsequently also utilize the publicity generated from a successful attack in order to inspire further attacks for their own objectives, as was the case with Bin Laden’s public support for Yousef in relation to a number of the 1993 WTC group.

 In many cases terrorist organization such as HAMAS and the Tamil Tiger identify themselves as freedom fighters, and in such cases the circumstances could be debatable. However in regards to the 1993 Attack, the motivation and objective was not solidly associated to any group which claimed to fight and free a specific ethnic group from the control of another force. Although evidence in the statements and trial transcripts for the 1993 WTC attacks did display discourse with the involvement the US had with Israel.

Whether it is agreed or not by the 1993 WTC attackers, their actions could not be considered the actions of freedom fighters.

The end result found that the US Attorney for the Southern District of New York was able to conclude a guilty verdict against Ajaj, Salameth, Ayyard, Abouhalima, Mohammed and Yousef (9/11 Commission Report, p.72). Yousef as the mastermind behind the 1993 WTC attack received a life sentence, plus 240 years, a fine of four and half millions dollars and was ordered to pay 240 million US Dollars in restitution (United States v Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and Eyad Ismoil).

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Bibliography.

 BBC.CO.UK (1993). World Trade Center bomb terrorises New York:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/26/newsid_2516000/2516469.stm: Retrieved 20th May 2007.

Bookrags.com (Retrieved 29 May 2007), http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/World_Trade_Center_bombing

Green, T. & O’Brien, N. (Comp.). History and Motivators of Terrorism. Readings. No:1 (2006).

Green, T; O’Brien, N. (Comp.) Charles Sturt University. Bathurst. Simonsen, C.E & Spindlove, J.R. (2004). Terrorism Today. Chapter 1. Defining terrorism. Pearson Education. Australia; In History and Motivators of Terrorism. Readings. No:1 (1999).

Martin, G. (2003). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives and Issues. Chapter 10, p. 244, Tools of the trade, Tactics and targets of terrorists, Sage Publications. London: In History and Motivators of Terrorism. Readings. No:1 (1999). Green, T; O’Brien, N. (Comp.) Charles Sturt University. Bathurst.

MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base: Retrieved 31 May 2007. http://www.tkb.org/KeyLeader.jsp?memID=5624

MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base: Retrieved 31 May 2007. http://www.tkb.org/KeyLeader.jsp?memID=5625

Parachini. J & Tucker. J.(2001). CNS Reports. February 1993 Bombing of the World Trade Centre in New York City. In: United States v Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and Eyad Ismoil, S1293CR 180 (KTD), October 22nd, 1997, p.4721. Direct Examination of Brian Parr.

Parachini. J & Tucker. J.(2001). CNS Reports. February 1993 Bombing of the World Trade Centre in New York City.In: United States v Muhammed A. Salameh et al, S1293cr 180 (KTD), May 24th, 1994, pp.26-34, 41-49, 53-65, 65-113.

Richardson, L. (2006). What Terrorist Want. Understanding The Terrorist Threat. John Murray Publishing, Great Britain. In History and Motivators of Terrorism. Readings. No:1 (1999). Green, T; O’Brien, N. (Comp.) Charles Sturt University. Bathurst.

Wikipedia, (2007). Encyclopedia. Retreived 29th May 2007:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramzi_Yousef

Christian P.W. Faust 94090109

Wikipedia, (2007). Encyclopedia. Retreived 30th May 2007:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmad_ Ajaj

Wikipedia, (2007). Encyclopedia. Retreived 28th May 2007:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Rahman_Yasin

 Wikipedia, (2007). Encyclopedia. Retreived 24th May 2007:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_Sheikh_Mohammed

Commission Reports:

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon The United States (2004). The 9/11 Commission Report. Chaired, Kean. T.H: Retrieved April 10 2007, http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/index.htm, pages, 59,71, 72, 73, 147, 148, 261, 336, 345.

Tribunal Trancripts:

Combatant Status Review Tribunal. “Transcript: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed confesses 9/11 role”, CNN, 14th March 2007. In: Wikipedia, (2007). Encyclopedia. Retreived 24th May 2007: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_Sheikh_Mohammed

 Newspaper Articles:

LA Times 14 November 2001 in; Wikipedia, (2007). Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30th May 2007: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmad_ Ajaj

Ragavan, C. (2003). Tracing terror’s roots: How the first World Trade Centre plot sowed the seeds for 9/11. Posted 16 February 2003. Retrieved 29 May 2007: http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/030224/24wtc_print.htm

Cases:

United States v Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and Eyad Ismoil, S1293CR 180 (KTD).

 United States v Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and Eyad Ismoil, S1293CR 180 (KTD), October 22nd, 1997, p.4721. Direct Examination of Brian Parr; In: Parachini. J & Tucker. J.(2001). CNS Reports. February 1993 Bombing of the World Trade Centre in New York City. In: Parachini. J & Tucker. J.(2001). CNS Reports. February 1993 Bombing of the World Trade Centre in New York City.

 United States v Muhammed A. Salameh et al, S1293cr 180 (KTD), May 24th, 1994, pp.26-34, 41-49, 53-65, 65-113. Statement of Mohammed A. Salameh, Nidal Ayyard, Mahmud Abouhalima, and Amad Mohammad Ajaj. In: Parachini. J & Tucker. J.(2001). CNS Reports. February 1993 Bombing of the World Trade Centre in New York City.

TV Documentaries:

National Geographic. The FBI. Aired 1 June 2007, Philippines, National Geographic Satellite TV 6.00am.

Top of Page

How Iraq & Afghanistan Conflicts Impacts Terrorism Outside of Those Countries

This paper will provide a brief narrative time-line of the conflict(s) between Israel and Palestine; and in doing so, will demonstrate that such conflict between the two has produced acts of terrorism against their nationals, and or national interest in countries other then their own domiciles.

 In addition this paper will provide evidence that such conflicts also have an extending impact and influence on state matters outside the realm of the two disputed domiciles. It is acknowledged that there are multiple types of impacts that can be generated by conflicts of war, in third party countries, such as political, economical, foreign policy issues and cultural amongst others. However, this essay will primarily focus on eternal consequences that relate to acts of terrorism.

 The instability of Israel is one that can be ascribed to the promise of God in the Hebrew Bible. In which God defines the modern day borders of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (Hebrew Bible, Numbers; Chapter 34).

At the end of the First World War the League of Nations approved a British Mandate for Palestine, with an objective to etch out a sovereign state for the Jewish people (Yale Law School, unknown). Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria Yemen and the now Jordan were concerned about the growing potential loss of their independence and sovereignty in their regions and as a result formulated the Arab League in May 1945 (Arab League, unknown).

Following the actions of the Arab League the United Nations in 1947 approved the separation of the Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab (Yale Law School, unknown). In response to the United Nations intent to establish two separate states the League of Arab States openly declared that they wanted to create a United State of Palestine instead of a Jewish and Arab, two-state, United Nations plan (Arab League, 1990).

 However, this was already too late. On the 14th May 1948 David Ben-Gurion declared Israel independent; he declared: “After many years of underground warfare, years of persecution suffering…[the] Hebrew revolt of 1944-48 has been crowned with success….The rule of enslavement of Britain in our country has been beaten, uprooted, has crumbled and been dispersed…. The State of Israel has arisen. And it has arisen “Only Thus”: through blood, fire, a strong hand and a mighty arm, with suffering and sacrifices (in Hoffman, 2006; p.53).”

 Almost immediately, as if anticipated, President Truman signed a press release which acknowledged the proclamation of the State of Israel (Truman, 1948).

 Between November 1947 and May 1948 Jewish and Palestinian communities were engaged in subversive paramilitary type conflicts (Rogan & Shlaim 2001). As independence was declared, Arab forces from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq invaded Israel (Infoplease.com). As a result of this first conflict there were a number of political consequences and disputes which centered on land boundaries and peace agreements. However in addition, to the political impact the war had there, was a further impact. It created a mass refugee problem in which more than three million Palestinian people would become displaced by the mid 1990’s (Boutwell, & Mendelson, 1995; p.72).

 It is from this displacement of peoples that discontented terrorist groups would later initially harvest, recruit and train new members for further terrorist attacks outside the

conflict zone. Several short conflicts and cease-fires between Arabs and the Zionists followed the initial invasion into Israel and eventually a formal cease-fire was established on the 7th January 1949 (Infoplease.com).

 From October 1951 through to 1955 Israel was involved in number of military skirmishes such as the Qibya raid in the West Bank; and the retaliation for the seizure of the Israeli ship Bat Galim near the Suez Canal in 1954, which in turn lead to the Gaza raid and the subsequent Sinai War in 1956 (Lee, 2007).

 During the 1960’s and onwards Israel found itself under sporadic terrorist attacks from a number of Palestinian formed groups, which were commonly associated to the Palestine Liberation Organization, or better known as the PLO which was originally founded by the Arab League in 1964 (Lee, 2007). One such organization was the National Liberation of Palestine Organization also known as FATAH, which after the Six Day War utilized

alternative style fighting measures in order to recover what they considered lost Arab territory (Oren, 2002; p.2). From strong holds in Syria, Fatah, utilized its military arm al-Asifa to implement a serious of terrorist attacks which were construed from within the sovereign boundaries of Jordan and Lebanon (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, date unknown; White, 2006; p. 147; Cobban, 1984, p.23; Alexander, et al, 1989, p.7). Also joining the Fatah cause in 1968 was the Syrian formulated Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Alexander, et al, 1989, p.7).

The PLO was later taken over by Fatah (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, date unknown). Yasser Arafat founding member originally formed Fatah as a quasi paramilitary unit (White, 2006; p.147). He had done so, as he openly apposed the methodology the PLO used in attempting to solve the Israeli – Palestine conflict (White, 2006; p.147). From within the ranks of Fatah small terrorist cells know as the fedayeen fighters emerged (White, 2006; p.147). According to Hoffman (2006, p. 66) the fedayeen were responsible for launching the first terrorist attacks outside of the Israel domicile and the Middle East.

 On the 5th September 1972, fedayeen terrorist known as the Black September Organization (BSO), associated directly to the Fatah/PLO stormed the Munich Olympic Village in the former West Germany, and raided the Israeli living quarters, murdering immediately two Israeli athletes, and taking a further nine athletes hostage (Hoffman, 2006; p.67). Evidence that the BSO and the PLO were directly associated is demonstrated in the US State departments correspondence dated March 13, 1973, which provided basic intelligence information assumed by the CIA, that allegedly confirmed an initial association and cooperation between the two organization (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, date unknown).

The events of September 5th, 1972, in Munich, West Germany marked the beginning in a new phenomenon,. A phenomenon that clearly demonstrated that a military or paramilitary conflict being fought in one part of the world could have a terrorist compounded impact outside the conflict zone. Furthermore, that such an impact could have an adverse affect on a host nation which is not involved in the said conflict.

 The Munich attack, which became known as one of the most horrific and devastating events of any Olympic Games was instigated by the PLO and the BSO in effort to ascertain mass global media exposure and publicity for their cause (Hoffman, 2006, p.67). Something the BSO were unable to achieve in their own back yard.

 Fuad al-Shamali, one of instigators of the plan for the BSO Munich attack was quoted saying, “Bombing attacks on El Al offices do not serve our cause (In: Hoffman, 2006, p.67).” “We have to kill their most important and most famous people. Since we cannot come close to their statesman, we have to kill artists and sportsman (In: Hoffman, 2006, p.67).”

In addition to the media objective, the BSO sought to negotiate the release of 236 Palestinian nationals which were jailed in various Israeli prisons and a further five West German terrorist from the Baader-Meinhoff gang which were members of the Red Army Fraction, (RAF), (Hoffman, 2006, p.67). The RAF was a quasi criminal, radial left wing cell which had no deep rooted conviction in their objectives.

 With this attack the PLO and the BSO demonstrated three major points. One that they no longer relied on what they considered conventional airline hostage taking. For example, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) which had been born shortly after the 1967 war had been involved in a number of El Al airline hijackings which had been in-flight between Rome to Tel-Aviv (Alexander, et al, 1989, p.11). Some other attacks by the group were the terrorist’s raid on the El Al Boeing aircraft at Athens international airport (Alexander, et al, 1989, p.11).

 The second major point demonstrated by the Munich attack was that the PLO was prepared to launch pre-emanated terrorist attacks outside the conflict zone. Unlike previous attacks which were ground based, concentrated airborne in-flight or airport related attacks and hijackings.

 The Munich BSO attack ended with the slaughter of 11 Israeli Olympians, the death of one West German police officer and the defensive killing of 5 BSO terrorists at

Fürtenfeldbruck air force base in Frankfurt, (Hoffman, 2006; pp. 67-68). Clearly the West German’s rescue attempt of the Israeli Olympians was unsuccessful. However, from the devastating incident, the Germans and the rest of the world were able to ascertain exactly how under prepared tactically their security forces were in handling terrorist attacks (Hoffman, 2006; p.67).

 As a direct result of the Munich attack the Germans created the Grenzschutzgruppe Neun (GSG 9), and subsequently other countries such as France created Group d’Intervention de la Gendarminerie (GIGN) (Hoffman, 2006; p.68).

 A notably third issue emerged from the Munich hostage attack. That being that the PLO/BSO was prepared to liberate not only their own fedayeen, but also members of other terrorist cells, namely in this case, members of the RAF (Hoffman, 2006, p.67). In the hope of cementing future alliances. This is evidenced by the event of the 1977 hijacking of a Lufthansa airliner in flight to Mallorca by German and Palestinian terrorists, which ended in a siege successfully concluded by the now well trained and organized GSG 9 in Mogadishu, Somalia (Hoffman, 2006; p.68).

One would think that the events of 1972 in the Munich Olympic village have been forgotten, or at least far placed in the mind of history. But the reality is somewhat different. In 1999 German police issued an arrest warrant for Mohammed Oudeh also known as Abu Daoud who was a former PLO BSO terrorist responsible for the bringing in of the weapons used later in the Olympic attack, by train from Frankfurt (Boston.com).

 Ironically, even more recent Daoud received new media attention on his 1999 autobiography about his confessed involvement with the BSO and the attack. In an Associated Press article displayed on www.boston.com (2006) he is said to have confessed in a Germany’s Spiegel TV program that he regretted nothing, pertaining to the events of Munich (Boston.com). Daoud now around 68 years of age was last known to live freely Damascus, Syria (Boston.com). These recent events not only demonstrate that the issue is still of contemporary media importance, but also that the issue still has as an impact on policing and law and order issues within Germany.

Meanwhile in Israel, the Munich Olympic massacre prompted Israel to retaliate. Under instruction of Prime Minister Golda Meir, Mossad the Israeli intelligence corps instigated a plan to execute all those directly or indirectly involved in the Munich attack Reeve, 2000; p.152-154). The plan was later known as the ‘Wrath of God’. Reprisal attacks by the Israeli secret service would lead to covert actions of executions on suspected terrorist, not necessarily responsible or involved in the Munich attack.

 The reprisal actions commenced in Rome, Italy, on the 16th October, 1972, with Abdel Wael Zwaiter who was shot twelve times by Mossad agents and went on to include the assassinations of;

Dr. Mahmoud Hamshari, on the 8th December, 1972, in Paris France;

Hussein Al Bashir, on the 24th January, 1973, in Nicosia, Cyprus;

Dr. Basil Al-Kubaissi, on the 6th April, 1973, in Paris, France;

Muhammad Youssef Al-Najjar, Kamal Adwan and Kamal Nasser, on the 9th April, 1973, in Lebanon;

Zaiad Muchasi, on the 11th April 1973, in Athens, Greece;

Mohammad Boudia, on the 28th June, 1973, in Paris, France;

Ali Hassan Salameh; on the 22nd January, 1979, in Beirut, Lebanon; (Wikipedia.com)

More notoriously, the ‘Wrath of God’ operations ended when Mossad operatives executed the wrong man. Mossad agents had thought that they were tracking and executing Ali Hassan Salameh, whom they considered a legitimate target under the Wrath of God charter. However they executed instead Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan waiter who had been living peacefully and lawfully in Lillehammer, Norway, on the 21st July 1973 (New York Times, 1996). Although the Israel never admitted its involvement in Bouchiki’ murder, they did go as far as to financial compensating family members with more that 400,000 US Dollars (New York Times, 1996).

The consequences of Bouchiki’s murder had an impact on law and order issues for Norway, who were forced to protect their sovereignty by arresting and prosecuting (www.borrull.org), the majority of Bouchiki’s assassins, such as former Mossad agent Sylvia Raphael, who died in South Africa in February 2005 (www.borrull.org).

Between 1971 and 1974 the BSO under the alliance of the PLO would become responsible for thirty four well known terrorist attacks; which would include but not be limited to sixteen bombings; eleven assassinations; three hostage takings; three airline hijackings and the notorious attack on the US Embassy in Beirut Lebanon (Anderson, et al, 1995; p.61).

 In amidst all the confusion and instability arose Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya the Islamic Resistance Movement (IRM) which was said to have been formed in 1987. It is better known as HAMAS.

  Hamas’ origins can be traced back to the Muslim Brotherhood, and according to White, it is both a religious and a political organization (White 2006; p.154). It is said that the inspiration to the birth of the first intifada, was contributed to the Jabalya incident during the mid-late 1980’s, in which four children in a Gaza refugee camp were allegedly run over and killed by an Israeli truck (AlJazeera.com).

The second Intifada which started in September 2000 saw Hamas, through its military wing the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades conducted a number of well known and publicized attacks on Israeli civilian targets, which have included various significant suicide bombings.

To demonstrate further that a said country’s military action in one part of the world can have an impact outside the conflict zone can be found when we examine Hezbollah, also

known as the “party of God” which is a Shi’a Islamic political and paramilitary organization based in Lebanon. It is devoted the Islamist Shi’a ideology taught by Ayatollah Khomeini, who himself was the power source and influence behind the Islamic Revolution in Iran (Rubenstein, 2007).

From its inception Hezbollah has joined the crusade against Israel and has publicly been noted for its call for the extermination and final elimination of the State of Israel (Memri.org). Many attacks in Lebanon have been accredited to Hezbollah, which is alleged also to have included the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing on U.S. and French Forces in Lebanon, during the Lebanese civil war period.

In conclusion, this essay has demonstrated that military conflicts such as Isreali-Palestianian conflict can produce series of impacts internationally, which are directly and

in some cases indirectly associated to terrorist attacks in other countries. Further evidence is contributed to this fact in what Gold (2006), wrote about how Israeli troops located propaganda material that was linked back to Saudi Wahhabi, Sheikh Sulaiman al-Ulwan who in turn was liked to al Qaeda. This is evidence that not only supports the theory those terrorist groups share common ground in their ideology (Gold, 2006), exchange ideas, and cooperate in training methods, but they also assist each other in implementing attacks abroad. Or that the exchange of ideas leads to attacks abroad, which in turn has a number of impacts in a third party country.

More evidence to support this essay’s theory is found when we examine Iranian sponsored groups like Hezbollah in Lebanon who have been responsible for past terrorist attacks against United States interests abroad. Two well known incidents are recorded as the suicide bombings by Hezbollah of the U.S. embassy and the Marine barracks in Beirut. Those particular Hezbollah attacks were launched in retaliation for U.S. military support of the Lebanese Christian Government against the Muslim militias.

A further example can be derived from the events in Somalia during 1993 in which Osama bin Laden was known to have trained the Somali indigenous tribesmen to perform a serious of paramilitary skirmishes against the U.S. peacekeeping forces. This attack resulted in 18 dead U.S. Army Rangers and the subsequent withdrawal of US presence in Somalia.

 Although there have been many political and military events since the conception of the new Israel, it is the contemporary issues relating to terrorism, and foreign policies of a number of western nations, including the US, which definitively prove that conflicts such as the ones in Israeli and Palestinian, or Afghanistan and Iraq have a vast range of impact on third party nations, and equally importantly an impact against the interest of a particular countries interests in a third party country.

 Osama bin Laden himself has contributed to this perception when he provided his letter to America in a press release which was published in the Guardian on Sunday 24th November 2002 (Observer.guardian.co.uk). In which he contributes the Israel Palestinian

conflict one in which involves America and thus mitigating the reason to why he and al Qaeda deems its actions necessary (Observer.guardian.co.uk). One could conclude from reading this publicly addressed letter to America that he was referring to the 9/11 attack.

 In the same article bin Laden goes on to identify his group with an association to all Muslims and conflicts which involve Muslims. Simply by using the word ‘us’ when he referred to America’s involvement in Somalia; and furthermore when he referred to America’s support for the Russians in Chechnya, and the Indian conflict against Kashmir, and the Zionist conflict with Lebanon, even going as far as contributing an association to the Muslim conflict in the Philippines (Observer.guardian.co.uk).

 Whether there is hard evidence to the truth of what he says is irrelevant, in as much that what he says really goes towards aspiring deep rooted Islamic fundamental activists to join his cause. This in itself is a direct impact on what the Afghan military conflict has had. More of such evidence is visible in the current Iraq conflict in which subversive actions have been manifested by Islamic fundamentalist who in turn have been trained in al Qaeda terrorist camps in places like Pakistan.

 Without doubt then, the most final impact that the depicted incidents in this essay have had, is that they have contributed to the growth of the international terrorism phenenomonon broadly and intensely globally.


Bibliography.

Alexander, Y. & Sinai, J. (1989). Terrorism: The PLO Connection. New York: Crane Russak. pp; 7, 11, 61.

AlJazeera.com and AlJazeera Magazine( 2006). Who is Hamas: Retrieved 5th May 2007; http://www.aljazeera.com/cgi-bin/review/article_full_story.asp?service_ID=10217

American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. (unknown). Jewish Virtual Library. Fatah. Retrieved: 14 September 2007. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/Fatah.html

American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. (unknown). Jewish Virtual Library. Fatah. Retrieved: 15 September 2007.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/plobso.html

Borrul.org. (13 February 2005). Mossad agent involved in mistaken assassination dies at 67. Retrieved: 17 September 2007. Associated Press. http://www.borrull.org/e/noticia.php?id=45536&id2=2669

Boston.com (28 January, 2006). Munich attack mastermind feels no regret. Retrieved: 16 September 2006. http://www.boston.com/news/world/europe/articles/2006/01/28/munich_attack_mastermind_feels_no_regret/. Associated Press Copyright 2006.

Boutwell, J. & Mendelson, E. (1995). Israeli-Palestinian Security: Issues in the Permanent Status Negotiations. Cambridge Mass.: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. p.72.

Cobban, H. (1984). The Palestinian Liberation Organization: People, Power and Politics. New York. Columbia University Press. p.3.

Gold, D. ( 2006). Ties between al Qaeda and Hamas in Mideast are long and frequent: Retrieved: 2nd May 2007, http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/2006/03/05/INGERHG75F1.DTL

Hebrew Bible. Numbers. Chapter 34. Retrieved: 15September 2007. http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/www/hebrew/Bible/

Hoffman, B. (2006) Inside Terrorism. Revised and Expanded Edition. Columbia Press. New York, p. 53; 66; 67; 68.

Infoplease.com. (unknown). The 1948-49 War. Retrieved: 13 September 2007. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0856666.html

League of Arab States. (Revised 2007) Retrieved: 10 September 2007. http://www.al-bab.com/arab/docs/docs.htm

Lee, R.A. (2007). Arab-Israeli Wars & Conflicts. Retrieved: 14September 2007. http://www.historyguy.com/arab_israeli_wars.html

Observer.guardian.co.uk. (24 November, 2002). Full text: bin Laden’s ‘letter to America’. Retrieved: 17 September 2007. http://observer.guardian.co.uk/worldview/story/0,,845725,00.html

Oren, M.B. (2002). Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Oxford University Press, Oxford. p.2.

Memri.org (23 June, 1999). Secretary General of Hizbullah Discusses the New Israeli Government and Hizbullah’s Struggle Against Israel. Retrieved: 12 September 2007. http://memri.org/bin/opener.cgi?Page=archives&ID=SP3699

New York Times, (28 January, 1996). World News Briefs; Israelis to Compensate Family of Slain Waiter. Retrieved: 15 September 2007. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B02E6DA1639F93BA15752C0A960958260

Reeve, S. (2000). One Day in September. New York: Arcade Publishing. P. 152-154.

Rogan, E. & Shlaim, A. (2001). The War of Palestine – Rewriting the history of 1948. Cambridge University Press.

Rubenstein, C. (2 June 2003). “Australia is right to ban Hezbollah. Here’s why.” The Age. 2 June 2003. Retrieved: 14September 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/01/1054406072000.html

Tavin, E. & Yonah, A. (eds). (1982). Psychological Warfare and Propaganda: Irgun Documentation. Wimington, Delawre, USA. Scholary Resources. pp.240, 241. “Speech of the Commander-in-Chief of the Irgun Zvai Le’umi, 15 May 1948”, In: Hoffman, B. (2006) Inside Terrorism. Revised and Expanded Edition. Columbia Press. New York, p. 53.

Christian P.W. Faust

94090109

The Palestine Mandate. In: The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. Retrieved: 9September 2007. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/palmanda.htm.

The Palestine Mandate. In: The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Resolution 181, United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved: 9September 2007. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/palmanda.htm

 Truman, H. President USA (Press Release 14 May 1948). Retrieved: 12 September 2007. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=83

 White, J.R. (2006). Terrorism and Homeland Security. 5th edn. Thomson Wadsworth. USA. p.147,154.

 

Commission Reports:

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon The United States (2004). The 9/11 Commission Report. Chaired, Kean. T.H: Retrieved April 10 2007, http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/index.htm, pages, 261.

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